Deepening the DNA and RNA Genetic Material You Are Here, Come on!

Who here is fond of studying Biology or maybe precisely not too mastering, especially DNA and RNA genetic material? The genetic material of DNA and RNA is one of the most challenging lessons to learn more about.

Of course genetic sayings, DNA, and RNA, of course, all three of you have heard. What do you think is the definition of genetic material for DNA and RNA? If you answer reproduction, you are right, you know.

Genetic material is information on each cell of a living creature that can be passed on to the next offspring. Usually, even genetic lessons are called nucleic acids or things like heredity. In living things, genetic lessons consisting of chromosomes, genes, DNA, and RNA will be passed through the reproductive process. This time, the Quipper Video Blog will outline the DNA and RNA genetic material. Come on, see together!

Definition of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)

DNA is a nucleic acid that assembles genes in the cell nucleus. In it, all biological information from each living thing is stored and some viruses. Not only in the cell nucleus, but DNA is also inside the mitochondria, chloroplasts, centrioles, plastids, to the cytoplasm.

DNA structure

DNA is a large housing molecule consisting of two long twisted bands composing a double helix, with each ribbon a polymer from hundreds to thousands of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of:

  • Pentose deoxyribose sugar, pentose sugar (atomic 5C) which loses one oxygen atom.
  • The phosphate group, which is bound to C number 5 from pentose sugar.
  • Nitrogen base, which is attached to number 1 C atoms of pentose sugar.

Chemical Bonds in the DNA Chain

  • Phosphodiester bonds, which are chemical bonds between phosphate groups from one nucleotide and sugar from the next nucleotide.
  • Hydrogen bonds, which are chemical bonds between nitrogen base pairs.
  • Bonds between deoxyribose sugar and nitrogen bases:
    • Deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP): between deoxyribose sugar and adenine base.
    • Deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP): between deoxyribose sugar and guanine base.
    • Deoxycytidine monophosphate (dCMP): between deoxyribose sugar and cytosine base.
    • Deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP): between deoxyribose sugar and thymine base.

DNA function

  • Bringing genetic information.
  • Has a role in inheritance.
  • Express genetic information.
  • Synthesizing other chemical molecules.
  • Self-duplicating or replicating.

Properties of DNA

  • The amount of DNA is constant in each cell type and species.
  • The DNA content in cells depends on the nature of ploidy or the number of chromosomes.
  • The form of DNA in the eukaryotic cell nucleus is like a thread that is not branched.
  • The kind of DNA in the prokaryotic cell nucleus, plastid, and circular mitochondria.

DNA replication

Replication or self-duplicating process occurs when interfacing before the cell divides with the aim that the resulting cell division contains DNA that is identical to the stem cell DNA. If there is a mistake in this process, the properties of the daughter cells will feel a change. The following is a brief explanation of this process:

  1. Two DNA chains are initiated by the helicase enzyme (no.9) with the help of the topoisomerase enzyme (no.11).
  2. A single DNA chain is attached to individual strand binding proteins (no. 10) to counteract the return of a double helix.
  3. RNA enzyme primase (no. 6) combines nucleotides into RNA primers, which are short pieces of RNA.
  4. The DNA polymerase molecule (no.3 and 8) attaches to a single strand of DNA and moves along the strand then arranges a new DNA strand.
  5. DNA ligase (no.4) connects these fragments.

Understanding RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)

RNA is a polynucleotide macromolecule in the form of single or multiple chains that are not twisted like DNA. RNA is not small in ribosomes or cytoplasm, and its presence is not fixed because it is easily broken down and must be rearranged.

RNA structure

RNA is a polynucleotide composed of not a few ribonucleotides. Each ribonucleotide is lost from:

  • Ribose pentose sugar.
  • The phosphate group, which forms the RNA backbone with ribose.
  • Nitrogen bases, which consist of purine bases and pyrimidine bases.

RNA function

RNA plays a role in the process of protein synthesis in cells. However, in some types of viruses, RNA acts like DNA to carry genetic information.

Kinds of RNA

  • Genetic RNA, namely RNA which acts like DNA in carrying genetic information. This type of RNA only exists in some types of viruses.
  • Nongenetic RNA, namely RNA, which plays a role in the process of protein synthesis. This type of RNA is found in organisms that have DNA. And you need to know that these nongenetic RNAs have three types, namely:
    • Messenger RNA (mRNA), this single chain formation is formed from hundreds of nucleotides, and the transcription process in the cell nucleus is carried out by DNA. The function of the mRNA is the carrier of the genetic code (codon) from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm.
    • Transfer RNA (tRNA), a single short chain arranged by DNA in the cell nucleus then carried into the cytoplasm. The function of tRNA is to interpret codons from mRNA and transport amino acids from the cytoplasm to ribosomes.
    • Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a single, unbranched, and adjustable chain of ribosomes arranged by DNA in the cell nucleus. The amount is not less than mRNA or tRNA. The function of rRNA is as a polypeptide assembly machine in protein synthesis.

From this review, besides understanding what DNA and RNA are, we also know the differences between them. For example, the structure of DNA in the form of a long double chain contradicts RNA in the way of a single short chain. Then, the amount of DNA that remains in conflict with the RNA is not fixed. The existence of permanent DNA is also contrary to RNA which is not stable because it is easily decomposed.